Automation enhances the consistency, quality, productivity, and safety of industrial processes and since the early 1900s, the role of automation in industry has been increasing. Automation has changed from machines that performed easy and repetitive tasks to industrial robots that gather information and react to the environment around them. 
Reliable Navigation Systems are Essential for Safe, Efficient Mobile Robots
Industrial mobile robots must have the ability to navigate increasingly complex and constantly changing environments efficiently and safely.
They must be able to perceive obstacles in front of them and make instant decisions about how to avoid them to achieve this.
A pizza delivery colleague who regularly crashes or drives around the neighborhood aimlessly before delivering a cold pizza would not be desirable. Similarly, people want mobile robots to efficiently complete their tasks without collisions. 
Sensors Help Robots ‘See’ their Environment
This low-tech solution may be appropriate for basic and compact robots, for example, robot vacuums, but is not likely to be the most effective choice for robotic forklifts traveling around expensive goods and people.[3-5]
Ultrasonic sensors emit sound waves and detect waves that return to the sensor after being reflected by the obstacles.
Ultrasonic sensors can communicate the presence of an obstacle to the robot, but the essence of ultrasonic sensors means that their operation is somewhat restricted and prone to error. Their update rates are slow and their maximum range is frequently short. [3-5]
LiDAR Laser Scanners Provide Precise Positioning – At a Cost
The length of time that the light takes to travel from the source to the object and back to the detector is utilized to compute the distance between the object and the robot. ,,
Rotating LiDAR systems use a rotating mirror to divert the laser beams to analyze their complete environment. Laser scanners offer instant and accurate maps of a robot’s surroundings, allowing for precise anti-collision and obstacle avoidance even in changeable situations. However, laser scanners are often costly and deliver thousands of data points each second, creating an excess of data that requires extensive processing power to evaluate.
This implies an expensive system that utilizes a high amount of energy. , Laser light can harm human eyes. Therefore, laser scanners must adhere to strict safety regulations.
Thoughtfully Placed ToF Distance Sensors Can Provide Coverage at a Fraction of the Price
This can also be complementary to full environment-scanning and provide redundancy at a fraction of the price.
Mobile robots can observe their environment and perform anti-collision employing a few single-point distance sensors with the correct sensor configuration. This greatly reduces cost and simplifies the system compared to the modeling and interpretation of their entire 3D environment.
TeraRanger Hub Evo - The Flexible Solution for Mobile Robot Navigation
This competitive flexibility allows customers to select which axes and areas to observe around the robot. The system can also be modified to various applications. This adaptable approach makes prototyping quick and easy. ,
With the TeraRanger Hub Evo, robots can effectively move around warehouses and other industrial environments while avoiding impacts with people, pallets, and machinery.
This convenient solution decreases the power consumption, cost, weight, and size of the whole system. If the customer already has alternative technologies in place, the TeraRanger Hub Evo and Evo sensors can provide additional functionality and enhance safety at a small cost. ,
References and Further Reading
2. Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots’ — Siegwart R, Nourbakhsh IR, Scaramuzza D, MIT Press, 2011.
3. Sensors for Mobile Robot Systems’ — Kucsera P, AARMS, 2006.
4. Performance comparison of Infrared and Ultrasonic sensors for obstacles of different materials in vehicle/ robot navigation applications’ — Adarsh S, Kaleemuddin MS, Bosen D, Ramachandran KI, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2016.
5. Electronic Sensing Technologies for Autonomous Ground Vehicles: A Review’ — Ilas C, Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering, 2013.
6. Time-of-flight principle’ https://www.terabee.com/time-of-flight-principle/
7. High-performance distance measurement sensor modules’ https://www.terabee.com/sensors-modules/lidar-tof-range-finders/
8. TeraRanger Hub Evo’ https://www.terabee.com/shop/accessories/teraranger-hub-evo/